The pathogen transmission mechanism They call the method of moving the causative agent of a parasitic or infectious disease into the susceptible organism from the infected. This process includes three stages:
- Removal of the infectious agent into the environment from the source organism;
- The presence of the pathogen in biotic or abiotic objects;
- Introduction (introduction) of an agent into an organism susceptible to it.
To date, there are six different types of transmission mechanisms of the pathogen:
For contact mechanism transmission is characterized by the localization of the pathogen on the skin and its appendages, the surface of wounds, genitals, on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, eyes. When these surfaces come into contact with various objects, they move on them, and then on a susceptible person, as a result of contact with such objects.
With airborne droplets the transmission of the pathogen is located in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. At sneezing and it coughs from there into the air in the form of an aerosol, after which it is introduced into the body of a new host by inhalation of contaminated air.
Fecal oral a transmission mechanism is a mechanism for which localization is characteristic infectious agent in the intestine, as well as its excretion from the infected organism with vomit, urine, feces. The ingestion of a susceptible person is ensured through the mouth, mainly when contaminated food or water is consumed, after which the pathogen multiplies again, but already in the gastrointestinal tract of the new host.
Vector transmission - this mechanism is characterized by the transmission of the pathogen through the bites of various carriers (insects, ticks, etc.). In this case, the infection is concentrated in lymph or circulatory system, and through the carrier it enters a similar system of the body.
With blood contact type of transmission occurs as a result of sexual intercourse, injection drugs and other drugs, medical manipulations.
Transplacental Transmission - the pathogen is transmitted to the fetus from the mother during of pregnancy.